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牢记滑雪受伤简单自救三大原则

2018-10-20 10:38:00 法制晚报 分享
参与
新开火龙单职业传奇私服 钟扬相信“每个学生都是一颗宝贵种子,全心浇灌就会开出希望之花”。

  

  法制晚报讯(记者 陈斯) 北京获得2022年冬奥会举办权之后,滑雪运动在民间迅速升温。作为一项充满速度与激情的运动,已经成为众多青年男女追逐向往的体育项目之一。不过,在享受乐趣的同时,要注意避免受伤。专家提醒,滑雪运动是一项高风险运动,操作不当或动作不规范会导致膝关节韧带损伤。

  单板易受撞击伤 双板易膝关节损伤

  北京积水潭医院创伤骨科主治医生杨慎达近日在接受本报记者采访时表示,滑雪受伤的情况一般分两种,一种是因为滑雪场环境问题,例如没看清标识、环境,撞到了栏杆、树上,掉进沟里等;第二种是纯技术问题,例如刚刚学会滑雪基本功不扎实,或者出现了动作失误等导致的受伤。

  滑雪分为单板、双板。其中,单板可能更易受撞击伤。而双板则一般和撞击无关,而是容易造成膝关节交叉韧带的损伤。

  以积水潭医院门急诊就诊情况来说,滑雪最常见的膝关节损伤,以膝关节内侧副韧带、前交叉韧带损伤最为多见。尤其是对于双板滑雪者,在刚开始学习时,为了掌控平衡,都会将膝关节轻轻弯曲,膝盖内收。这种姿势在遇到突然变向或停止动作时,极容易出现不可控制的膝关节扭伤,造成韧带损伤或断裂。内侧副韧带损伤会出现膝关节内侧明显疼痛,而前交叉韧带损伤则会导致关节积血、肿胀。

  两种韧带损伤往往合并出现,因为关节不存在骨折或脱位,因此容易被漏诊。当出现滑雪时膝关节扭伤后的明显肿胀,需要咨询专科医生,妥善处理。其他常见的损伤还包括下肢骨折、脚踝扭伤等。

  牢记正确动作要领 重心放在脚掌上

  专家提醒,对于以上这些可能出现的危险做到心中有数之后,需要牢记正确的动作要领来享受滑雪的乐趣。

  以双板滑雪为例,正确的姿势是两脚与肩同宽,膝盖自然弯曲,小腿迎面骨贴在雪鞋鞋舌上,不要离开,重心放在脚掌上。

  上半身以胯为轴自然下探,稍微含胸,肩膀膝盖脚尖一条线,屁股不能后于脚跟,双手抬至与胯同高的位置,类似与人握手的位置,双臂自然弯曲持杖,目视前方,这是最基本的站姿,无论是初学者还是进阶选手在滑行中都不能偏离基本站姿,以胯为轴,上半身永远是锁住的,级别越高,上半身姿态越低。无论速度多快,身体的重心永远要追到脚掌位置,很多初学者摔伤都是因为速度快了或是心里恐惧所以重心跑到脚跟,导致力不能有效传导到雪板上而失去稳定。

  另外,为了预防对膝盖的伤害,中级选手要学会逐步释放压力,也就是所谓的引身,并且逐步将轴心从膝盖转移到胯,因为胯关节比膝关节要结实得多,所以可以承受并传导更多的力到雪板,这样有效防止膝盖长时间使用所可能产生的损伤。通过胯将全身体重传至雪板,这样也比通过膝盖仅仅将大腿的力传达到雪板的控制力更强,适合高强度的滑行,比如竞技滑行。

  受伤后简单自救 尽快专业治疗

  一旦受伤,不要慌乱,应遵循“制动、冰敷和抬高患肢”三个原则,就地进行简单自救,并尽快到附近医院,与专科医生进行耐心地沟通,接受必要的检查和治疗。

  处理方式

  膝关节韧带损伤:用长的木板、木棍或滑雪用具将伤腿固定并抬高。膝关节韧带损伤后如不加注意或继续活动,容易反复受伤,严重的会引起创伤性滑膜炎、关节软骨磨损,导致关节提早退化。

  踝关节损伤:受伤后有明显肿胀疼痛时,不要强行着地行走,避免伤情严重。用轮椅、担架或者在同伴搀扶下送至医院,排除脱臼或骨折的可能。

  跟腱断裂:若出现抬脚后跟无力,肌肉紧张度丧失,在足跟后上方出现凹陷时,要高度警惕跟腱断裂。应禁止伤者站立或走动,最好趴着伸直脚尖后固定受伤部位。

  小腿肌肉拉伤:若运动时感觉到钝响,或者小腿后方肌肉明显疼痛肿胀时,伤者最好不要再继续行走或剧烈运动,否则容易导致骨筋膜间室综合征,造成足部运动障碍、挛缩,严重者甚至会造成腿部残疾。

  提醒 关节疾病患者不宜滑雪

  专家提醒,滑雪是一项竞技运动,对人体的平衡掌控能力与力量有较高的要求,因此,存在器质性疾病的人群,比如既往存在关节疾病、关节炎、半月板损伤、软骨损伤等,或存在腰部疾病如腰椎间盘突出症等,或存在心肺疾病如心律失常、高血压、心肌疾病等,不适宜参与这样的高风险运动。

   文/记者 陈斯

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